Altogen Labs http://altogenlabs.com provides ELISA (Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay) and Cell-Based Assay Development http://altogenlabs.com/pre-clinical-research-services/elisa-and-cell-based-assay-development-cell-cycle-viability/. Plate-based assay technique designed for detecting and quantifying substances such as peptides, proteins, antibodies and hormones.
The substance’s binding activity is measured as a linear spectrophotometric response and quantified against a standard curve.
-ELISAs are typically performed in polystyrene plates which will passively bind a known antibody or antigen to the plate surface. This is known as the solid phase.
-The plate is loaded with a liquid sample containing the antigen and buffer washes remove any unbound antigen or antibody from the wells.
Only target antigen that has bound to the solid phase will remain.
A buffer containing antibodies and enzyme-conjugated antibody is added to the wells. Bound complexes will be detected by enzyme produced colorimetric substrate.
-Enzyme production of colorimetric substrate produces an optical signal, which is directly correlated to the amount of bound analyte and accordingly, the concentration of analyte in the original solution.
-Customizable monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies make the ELISA a very versatile assay able to detect most targets of interest, with high affinity, specificity and sensitivity.
Altogen Labs (http://www.altogenlabs.com) offers:
Antibody Testing, Custom labeling, Biotinylation, Purification
Monoclonal and Polyclonal Antibody Development
ELISA Assay Development
ELISA Platform Optimization
ELISA Assay Format Modification
-ELISA is a versatile tool that can be modified from the ‘standard’ method
The antigen to be tested is diluted with a carbonate buffer, often PBS, and the PVC wells in an ELISA plate are filled and incubated overnight.
The wells are washed and any unbound antigen removed.
A blocking buffer blocks any protein-binding sites in the now coated wells to reduce false-positive reactions.
Add the primary antibody diluted to the optimal concentration with blocking buffer.
Incubate and wash with the carbonate buffer used in step one.
Dispense the enzyme-linked secondary antibody into each well and incubate.
Add a stop solution to stop the detection substrate’s reaction and read the optical density (OD) of each well.
Against the prepared standard curve, calculate the concentration of each well.
-Antigen adheres to well and unbound antigen is removed
Antibody is added and binds to any antigen present
Detection antibody is added and binds to the primary
Enzyme present turns over substrate producing a color change
The antigen is incubated overnight in a microtiter plate as the solid phase of the experiment. Unbound antigen is removed by buffer wash steps.
The enzyme-conjugated primary antibody is added to each well. Subsequent buffer wash steps remove unbound antibody.
Upon the addition of substrate, conjugated enzyme produces an optical signal via colorimetric product. This signal is directly proportional to the number of bound primary antibodies and accordingly the amount of antigen present, and the concentration of antigen present in the original solution.
-Advantages and disadvantages
-Altogen Labs Custom ELISA Services
Antibody Labeling, Biotinylation, Purification
Monoclonal Antibody Development
ELISA: Assay Development
ELISA: Platform Optimization
ELISA: Assay Format Modification
Standard ELISA services include testing activity of the compound of interest on a panel of 15 intracellular Ser/Thr kinases and 17 Tyr kinases to detect substrate-specific phosphorylation activity induced by kinase activation.
-Types of Cell-Based Assays
-Altogen Labs has a staff of scientists experienced with ELISA development, optimization, and modification
Altogen Labs’ standard ELISA service includes screening against a panel of 15 intracellular Ser/Thr kinases and 17 Tyr kinases for substrate phosphorylation activity
Our laboratory is trained and equipped to perform any study under Good Laboratory Practices (GLP)
Contact us to discuss details, timeline estimates, and get price quotes!
Connect to Altogen Labs:
LinkedIn - https://www.linkedin.com/company/altogen-labs/
Twitter - https://twitter.com/altogen?lang=en
Facebook - https://www.facebook.com/Altogen.CRO/
This site provides links to random videos hosted at YouTube, with the emphasis on random.
The original idea for this site actually stemmed from another idea to provide a way of benchmarking the popularity of a video against the general population of YouTube videos. There are probably sites that do this by now, but there wasn’t when we started out. Anyway, in order to figure out how popular any one video is, you need a pretty large sample of videos to rank it against. The challenge is that the sample needs to be very random in order to properly rank a video and YouTube doesn’t appear to provide a way to obtain large numbers of random video IDs.
Even if you search on YouTube for a random string, the set of results that will be returned will still be based on popularity, so if you’re using this approach to build up your sample, you’re already in trouble. It turns out there is a multitude of ways in which the YouTube search function makes it very difficult to retrieve truly random results.
So how can we provide truly random links to YouTube videos? It turns out that the YouTube programming interface (API) provides additional functions that allow the discovery of videos which, with the right approach, are much more random. Using a number of tricks, combined some subtle manipulation of the space-time fabric, we have managed to create a process that yields something very close to 100% random links to YouTube videos.
YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California. YouTube allows users to upload, view, rate, share, add to playlists, report, comment on videos, and subscribe to other users. It offers a wide variety of user-generated and corporate media videos. Available content includes video clips, TV show clips, music videos, short and documentary films, audio recordings, movie trailers, live streams, and other content such as video blogging, short original videos, and educational videos. Most content on YouTube is uploaded by individuals, but media corporations including CBS, the BBC, Vevo, and Hulu offer some of their material via YouTube as part of the YouTube partnership program. Unregistered users can only watch videos on the site, while registered users are permitted to upload an unlimited number of videos and add comments to videos. Videos deemed potentially inappropriate are available only to registered users affirming themselves to be at least 18 years old.
YouTube and selected creators earn advertising revenue from Google AdSense, a program which targets ads according to site content and audience. The vast majority of its videos are free to view, but there are exceptions, including subscription-based premium channels, film rentals, as well as YouTube Music and YouTube Premium, subscription services respectively offering premium and ad-free music streaming, and ad-free access to all content, including exclusive content commissioned from notable personalities. As of February 2017, there were more than 400 hours of content uploaded to YouTube each minute, and one billion hours of content being watched on YouTube every day. As of August 2018, the website is ranked as the second-most popular site in the world, according to Alexa Internet, just behind Google. As of May 2019, more than 500 hours of video content are uploaded to YouTube every minute.
YouTube has faced criticism over aspects of its operations, including its handling of copyrighted content contained within uploaded videos, its recommendation algorithms perpetuating videos that promote conspiracy theories and falsehoods, hosting videos ostensibly targeting children but containing violent and/or sexually suggestive content involving popular characters, videos of minors attracting pedophilic activities in their comment sections, and fluctuating policies on the types of content that is eligible to be monetized with advertising.