The first CGI in movies was inspired by some of the first photos of Mars. This is how it worked.
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In this episode of Vox Almanac, producer Phil Edwards explores the history behind the groundbreaking CGI (Computer Generated Imagery) in 1973’s Westworld. The film drew inspiration from a surprising source: the photographs taken by the Mars Mariner flyby of the red planet in the mid-1960s.
Designer and artist John Whitney saw the Mariner photos and though their distinctive appearance was a good template — as well as technical model — for the computer vision of a robot character in Westworld. In replicating the NASA achievement, he notched his own historic first for CGI in film.
It's a landmark moment for visual effects, computer graphics, and the movies.
If you want to learn about how mechanical computers created a form of CGI even earlier that Westworld, check out this article about the earliest experiments.
Digital Harmony explores the trippy work of John Whitney (which also shaped early CGI efforts).
Expanded Cinema by Gene Youngblood is another extensive catalog of early efforts to integrate art and machine.
The most extensive article about Westworld’s CGI appears in American Cinematographer, Volume 54, Number 11, from November 1973. You can find it on some magazine archival sites and American Cinematographer.
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