Organised by CPDP
Chair: Paul De Hert, VUB (BE)
Moderator: Giovanni Buttarelli, EDPS (EU)
Panel: Kabir Barday, OneTrust (US), Ralf Sauer, DG Just (EU), Max Schrems, Europe v Facebook (AT), Peter Swire, Georgia Tech (US), Marcy Wheeler, independent journalist (US)
In late 2015, the Schrems judgment invalidated Safe Harbor on the basis that the agreement failed to protect EU citizens’ personal data from being used in US mass surveillance operations. In order to remedy this uncertainty, EU and US representatives urgently set about negotiating a new agreement that would rectify the problems with Safe Harbor and ensure adequate protection for EU citizens’ personal data. The new agreement, called Privacy Shield, was adopted in July 2016. Yet Privacy Shield has been, and continues, to be, the subject of harsh criticism from both EU institutions and NGOs. In particular, concerns have been raised that Privacy Shield will have little impact on the possibility for US authorities to carry out mass surveillance on EU citizens. Half a year after the adoption of the agreement, and in light of these lingering concerns, the panel will consider the following questions:
- Does Privacy Shield offer any stronger protection for EU citizens from US mass surveillance?
- To what extent should the EU rely on the assurances given by the US about access to data for mass surveillance?
- If Privacy Shield is subject to the same objections as Safe Harbor, is it open to the same legal challenges?
- If Privacy Shield is not sufficient, what kind of agreement would be required to sufficiently protect EU citizens from US mass surveillance?
This site provides links to random videos hosted at YouTube, with the emphasis on random.
The original idea for this site actually stemmed from another idea to provide a way of benchmarking the popularity of a video against the general population of YouTube videos. There are probably sites that do this by now, but there wasn’t when we started out. Anyway, in order to figure out how popular any one video is, you need a pretty large sample of videos to rank it against. The challenge is that the sample needs to be very random in order to properly rank a video and YouTube doesn’t appear to provide a way to obtain large numbers of random video IDs.
Even if you search on YouTube for a random string, the set of results that will be returned will still be based on popularity, so if you’re using this approach to build up your sample, you’re already in trouble. It turns out there is a multitude of ways in which the YouTube search function makes it very difficult to retrieve truly random results.
So how can we provide truly random links to YouTube videos? It turns out that the YouTube programming interface (API) provides additional functions that allow the discovery of videos which, with the right approach, are much more random. Using a number of tricks, combined some subtle manipulation of the space-time fabric, we have managed to create a process that yields something very close to 100% random links to YouTube videos.
YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California. YouTube allows users to upload, view, rate, share, add to playlists, report, comment on videos, and subscribe to other users. It offers a wide variety of user-generated and corporate media videos. Available content includes video clips, TV show clips, music videos, short and documentary films, audio recordings, movie trailers, live streams, and other content such as video blogging, short original videos, and educational videos. Most content on YouTube is uploaded by individuals, but media corporations including CBS, the BBC, Vevo, and Hulu offer some of their material via YouTube as part of the YouTube partnership program. Unregistered users can only watch videos on the site, while registered users are permitted to upload an unlimited number of videos and add comments to videos. Videos deemed potentially inappropriate are available only to registered users affirming themselves to be at least 18 years old.
YouTube and selected creators earn advertising revenue from Google AdSense, a program which targets ads according to site content and audience. The vast majority of its videos are free to view, but there are exceptions, including subscription-based premium channels, film rentals, as well as YouTube Music and YouTube Premium, subscription services respectively offering premium and ad-free music streaming, and ad-free access to all content, including exclusive content commissioned from notable personalities. As of February 2017, there were more than 400 hours of content uploaded to YouTube each minute, and one billion hours of content being watched on YouTube every day. As of August 2018, the website is ranked as the second-most popular site in the world, according to Alexa Internet, just behind Google. As of May 2019, more than 500 hours of video content are uploaded to YouTube every minute.
YouTube has faced criticism over aspects of its operations, including its handling of copyrighted content contained within uploaded videos, its recommendation algorithms perpetuating videos that promote conspiracy theories and falsehoods, hosting videos ostensibly targeting children but containing violent and/or sexually suggestive content involving popular characters, videos of minors attracting pedophilic activities in their comment sections, and fluctuating policies on the types of content that is eligible to be monetized with advertising.